John warns about false *Christs . "You think this will get a good reaction?" Play! Certain linguistic features of the two texts support this view. [8] In summary, the epistle may be said to exhibit a paraenetic style which is "marked by personal appeal, contrasts of right and wrong, true and false, and an occasional rhetorical question". There are other possible interpretations of the intended audience of this letter. 1 John 2:18-29: Warnings against the spirit of antichrist and false, deceptive teachers. The others are the Gospel of John, 2 John, 3 John, and the book of Revelation. Date of Writing: The Book of 1 John was likely written between A.D. 85-95. Most scholars believe the three Johannine epistles have the same author, but there is no consensus if this was also the author of the Gospel of John. [28], Around 415, Augustine of Hippo wrote a commentary in Latin On the Epistle of John to the Parthians (in Latin, ad Parthos), in which he identifies the addressees of John's letter as Parthians. In 1 John 2:2, John makes reference to two groups of people: The first group is "us" or "ours", meaning himself and the audience he is writing to (the church). Throughout the epistle he uses the term “we” and includes himself in the same spiritual state and facing the same spiritual dangers as his readers. The audience for 1 John is not explicitly stated, but it appears from his writings that John wrote to believers (see 1 John 1:3–4; 2:12–14), perhaps those in Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey), where some historical sources say John may have lived and ministered in the late first century A.D. The Word of life. 4. 2:24). They are, he says, “from God” and have overcome antichrists, because “greater is He that is in you than he who is in the world” (1 Jn. While this theory, first propounded by Ernst von Dobschütz and Rudolf Bultmann, is not universally accepted, Amos Wilder writes that, "It is at least clear that there are considerable and sometimes continuous elements in the epistle whose style distinguishes them from that of the author both with respect to poetic structure and syntactic usage. Joseph Dillow, in his book The Reign of the Servant Kings, offers what I consider to be a far more plausible explanation of the audience of 1 John. 1 John 2:7-17. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary suggests that the three Johannine epistles "describe the fracturing of the Johannine community itself". On balance, it is likely that John's first letter was written for the Ephesian church and that the Parthian label results from a misreading or misunderstanding. 1 John 3:13-17 Marvel not, my brethren, if the world hate you… is in. That which we have seen and heard declare we unto you, that ye also may have fellowship with … ", The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, Edited by Raymond E. Brown, S.S., Union Theological Seminary, New York; NY, William J. Dalton, S. J.; Roland E. Murphy, O. Carm. The epistle is divided into five chapters. Read Scripture. Dillow presents even more evidence that John considers his readers to be true believers in Christ. 1 John 2:11 But he that hateth his brother is in darkness, and walketh in darkness, and knoweth not whither he goeth, because that darkness hath blinded his eyes. [5], The epistle is not written in the same form as the other biblical epistles, as it lacks an epistolary opening or conclusion. [23] Bibles translated from his edition integrate the passage, including the King James Version (1611), which renders it as follows (in italics): 7For there are three that beare record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. [17] Ernest DeWitt Burton found it likely that its audience was largely gentile rather than Jewish, since it contains few Old Testament quotations or distinctly Jewish forms of expression.[10]. There are two main approaches to understanding the overall purpose of the letter, tests of life (popularized by Robert Law) and tests of fellowship (popularized by John Mitchell and Zane Hodges). Read about Questions from the audience 1 from John Mayer & Brad Paisley's CMT Crossroads and see the artwork, lyrics and similar artists. Joseph Dillow, in his book  The Reign of the Servant Kings, offers what I consider to be a far more plausible explanation of the audience of 1 John. Verses 1-4 of the first chapter constitute a prologue or introduction concerning the Incarnate Word. 1 John 2:9-14: Brotherly love; spiritual growth stages in a Christian’s life: “little children,” “young men” and “fathers.” 1 John 2:15-17: Love of the world (society) is opposed to love of the Father. 1 John 2:1-6. 1. [21] Anglican commentator Alfred Plummer notes that "the similarity to the opening of the Gospel is manifest", but with a significant difference, in that the gospel refers to the existence of the Ancient Greek: λόγος, lógos, word, before the creation, whereas here the point is that the word existed before the incarnation.[21]. These people would most likely have been banished from there own synagogues and different traditions. 1 John 1:9. Different versions of the Greek manuscript have different wording for some verses. The shape of the letter. In contrast to his regenerate readers, the next verse refers to those who are “from the world.” His understanding of the saved state of his readers is further clarified when he says of them, “These things I have written to you who believe in the name of the Son of God” (1 Jn. Get this … Audience. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. 5. [5] This is similar to the parallel structure of Hebrew poetry, in which the second verse of a couplet often carries the same meaning as the first, although in this epistle the frequent recapitulations of already expressed ideas serve also to add to what has previously been said. Verse 4. Last week in our study of 1 John, several questions arose about audience relevance in light of verse 28. There is no scholarly consensus as to the authorship of the Johannine works. Furthermore, these people have received an “anointing,” the Holy Spirit (1 Jn. The author of the First Epistle is termed John the Evangelist, who most scholars believe is not the same as John the Apostle. The love of the Father is not in those who love the world." Otherwise, she is a false Christian who is not going to heaven. 4:4). Who was the Author? 3. A new command from Christ. 2. Dillow concludes from this analysis that there is little doubt that the apostle John was writing to people whom he considered to be true Christians who were going to heaven because of their faith in Christ. The author of this epistle never identified himself by name, but Christians since the beginning of the church have considered this letter authoritative, believing it was written by Author: 1, 2, and 3 John have from earliest times been attributed to the apostle John, who also wrote the Gospel of John. This is the first of his three letters in the New Testament. For instance, 1 John often uses a demonstrative pronoun at the beginning of a sentence, then a particle or conjunction, followed by an explanation or definition of the demonstrative at the end of the sentence—a stylistic technique which is not used in the gospel. "The Fourth Gospel addresses itself to the challenges posed by Judaism and others outside Johannine circles who have rejected the community's vision of Jesus as preexistent Son, sent by the Father." Robert Dabney, "The Doctrinal Various Readings of the New Testament Greek", 1894: p. 32. [29], "Although ancient traditions attributed to the Apostle John the Fourth Gospel, the Book of Revelation, and the three Epistles of John, modern scholars believe that he wrote none of them. This indicates, at the very least, the linguistic characteristics changed over time. - The participial substantive ὁ λέγων now takes the place of ἐάν with the subjunctive, but the two are equivalent (cf. 5:5). Psalm 82:5 They know not, neither will they understand; they walk on in darkness: all the foundations of the earth are out of course. John feels relieved as he listens to Adam describe how well he has supported his ideas. A message whose only effect is to depress and to discourage those who hear it has stopped halfway. [18] Papyrus 9, dating from the 3rd century, has surviving parts of chapter 4, verses 11–12 and 14–17.[19]. The earliest written versions of the epistle have been lost; some of the earliest surviving manuscripts include: The Muratorian fragment, dated to AD 170, cites chapter 1, verses 1–3 within a discussion of the Gospel of John. 1 John itself contains no hint of the identity of the Christian community to which it was addressed, nor does it give any specific clue to the identification of the locale involved where these believers lived. Bad assumption #1: The New Testament church letters are for saints not sinners Actually the letters for the churches were for churches, meaning assemblies of people. If the intended readers of the letter are born again Christians, then the tests cannot be methods of assessing whether the readers are born again. 1 John 1:5, “This is the message we have heard from Him and announce to you, that God is Light, and in Him there is no darkness at all.” John 8:12, “Then Jesus again spoke to them, saying, ‘I am the Light of the world; he who follows Me will not walk in the darkness, but will have the Light of life.  By their understanding, some professing Christians are false Christians who are not truly saved. Its recipients were clearly believers, but no specific audience is mentioned. [John] says of his readers that they are “little children” whose “sins are forgiven for His name’s sake” (1 Jn. While Paul wrote to specific congregations and individuals, Peter, James, John, and Jude wrote to broader audiences scattered across the Roman empire. 1 John Who was the Audience When was it Written? 1 John 1:5-10. [1] The author advises Christians on how to discern true teachers: by their ethics, their proclamation of Jesus in the flesh, and by their love. (emeritus) The Divinity School, Duke University, Durham, NC; [The Johannine Epistles, Pheme Perkins], with a foreword by His Eminence Carlo Maria Cardinal Martini, S.J. The content, style, and vocabulary seem to warrant the conclusion that these three epistles were addressed to the same readers as the Gospel of John. The second group he references is the "whole world"(everybody else). God is *light and we should walk in the *light. 8And there are three that beare witnesse in earth, the Spirit, and the Water, and the Blood, and these three agree in one.[24]. [1] The original text was written in Koine Greek. [2][3] The author describes various tests by which readers may ascertain whether or not their communion with God is genuine, and teaches that the proof of spiritual regeneration is a life of active righteousness. Emilio Ramos. Therefore the purpose of John's Gospel is to "confirm and secure Christians in the faith." The First Epistle of John, often referred to as First John and written 1 John or I John, is the first of the Johannine epistles of the New Testament, and the fourth of the catholic epistles. John asks. Advocates of the Reformed doctrine of perseverance argue that the writer of 1 John is addressing a group of professing Christians. Audience: First John is one of five New Testament books written by the apostle John. Finally, while the world “lies in the power of the evil one,” we know that “we are of God” (1 Jn. If we don’t do that, it’s easy to misinterpret what a particular book or chapter is really saying. Dillow believes that the text clearly indicates that the apostle John is writing to people who he considers to be true Christians, not just professing Christians. Through 1-3 John Sovereign Joy. It was more difficult to find who the author of 1 John was because the letter was anonymously John also wrote for a very varied crowd which included mostly of Jews, and some Gentiles. As low as $30/day. They are specifically contrasted with the non-Christian Gnostic antichrists who departed from them. This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 15:16. He specifically affirms of them “that we should be called children of God; and such we are” (1 Jn. In the clearest possible terms the apostle affirms the regenerate state of his readers when he says, “I have not written to you because you do not know the truth, but because you do know it.” He is confident that the truth is presently “abiding” in them, and he wants it to continue to abide in them (1 Jn. They were corporate letters. John then gives his audience encouragement to repent of any sins and return to obeying God, saying that our lives (and the world) will eventually end. This summary of the book of 1 John provides information about the title, author(s), date of writing, chronology, theme, theology, outline, a brief overview, and the chapters of the Book of 1 John. 1. 3, 2, 1 3, 1, 2 2, 1, 3 2, 3, 1 On the day of the holiday party, John is still nervous about the presentation. Translations made since the 18th century and based on a critical edition do not include this text, or include it as a footnote. 6. The author of 1 John was John the Apostle. Christ speaks for us and we should obey God. John also uses 3:16 and 8:24 to support this. 3:1). He runs into Adam after arriving at work and asks him to take a look at his finished speech. In fact, one who has believed in the Son of God has “overcome the world” (1 Jn. The tests must be for assessing something else. 2:27). 1 That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked at and our hands have touched —this we proclaim concerning the Word of life. The main themes of the epistle are love and fellowship with God. More on that “something else” in the next blog post. He calls them “fathers” who “have known Him from the beginning,” and he writes to the young men who “have overcome the evil one” and in whom “the word of God abides” (1 Jn. [6] The author of the epistle also "uses the conditional sentence in a variety of rhetorical figures which are unknown to the gospel". John’s next two letters, however, are written to specific audiences. [22] Although no Greek manuscripts before the 15th century include the passage, Erasmus added it to later editions of his edition of the New Testament, beginning in 1522. How could John have stated it any more clearly? God’s Love and Ours - Dear friends, let us love one another, for love comes from God. Written by John the Elder to house church believers, 1 John, 2 John, 3 John echo the gospel of John. Whereas the Gospel of John was written for unbelievers (John 20:31), this epistle was written to those who were already believers (5:13). 2:20). 2:12). [21] The Textus Receptus version includes "Ἀμήν", Amen, at the end but critical editions do not. If this is the case, this section cannot refer to anyone other than believing Christians in John’s own audience, and certainly not to Old Testament believers.26 On the other hand, Dodd argues that the Old Testament does sometimes identify the people Israel as the "children" (Deut 14:1) or "son/sons" of God (Ps. ; Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1990, Textual variants in the First Epistle of John, 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198744733.001.0001, English Translation with Parallel Latin Vulgate, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=First_Epistle_of_John&oldid=995529697, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from March 2020, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary suggests that the three Johannine epistles "describe the fracturing of the Johannine community itself". Clement of Alexandria indicates that John ministered in the various churches scattered throughout that province. For Dillow, “Any system of interpretation which ignores these plain statements in the interests of fitting into a theological scheme must ask, ‘How else could John say it?’ If he wanted to assert that his readers were in fact born again in contrast to the world, how could he make it clearer?”. 2:13-14). They should love each other. [4] It also distinguishes between the world (which is full of evil and under the dominion of Satan) and the children of God (who are set apart from the world). Everyone who loves has been born of God and knows God. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. It is quite true that often the aim of the preacher and the teacher must be to awaken a godly sorrow which will lead to a true repentance. "[9], The epistle is traditionally held to have been composed by John the Evangelist, at Ephesus,[10] when the writer was in advanced age. Because the addition supports the doctrine of trinitarianism, it featured in Protestant and Catholic debates on this subject in the early modern period. 1 – 3 John. Given this starting point, these Reformed thinkers then argue that the tests in 1 John are there so that professing Christians can know if they are truly born again or not. (ii) It is his wish to bring his people joy (1 John 1:4), Joy is the essence of Christianity. [1] Thus, at the end of the 19th century scholar Ernest DeWitt Burton wrote that there could be "no reasonable doubt" that 1 John and the gospel were written by the same author. This tradition, however, is known only from Latin sources. 1 John 1:6, which is almost exactly parallel to this, and shows what "knowing him" really is, viz. The Incarnation of the Word of Life. 1 John 2:18-29. 3:2). 1 John 1:1-4. Play! John had a very independent gospel which was completely unlike the other three who all shared some information in there own gospels. 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